The thyroid plays an important role in producing, storing and circulating TH into the human body. The TH, which includes hormones known as T3 (liothyronine) and T4 (levothyroxinis vital for the function of human body cells. A reduced production or circulation of TH can slow down the body causing a health condition called hypothyroidism. Similarly, if the production of TH is more than the required then it may trigger a health condition called hyperthyroidism.
The level of TH produced by the thyroid gland is adjusted by a gland in the brain called the pituitary. Another part of the brain, the hypothalamus, assists the pituitary in regulating TH in the bloodstream. The two works in proper coordination – the hypothalamus sends information to the pituitary gland, the pituitary, in turn, controls the thyroid gland.
The level of TH produced and circulated in the body is controlled by the thyroid gland, pituitary gland, and hypothalamus. These organs work just like a thermostat controls the Thyroidtemperature in a room. The pituitary gland constantly monitors the level of TH in the blood. In case of low level of TH in blood, the pituitary gland ‘turn on the heat’ by releasing additional Thyroid-stimulating hormones (TSH), which signals the thyroid to produce more of the TH. Once the right level of TH is reached in the bloodstream, the pituitary gland lowers the release of TSH and hence the production of TH in the bloodstream is also low.
The thyroid plays a different role in different body parts. For example, in the endocrine system, thyroid regulates metabolism. Metabolism is the ability of the body to break food and convert it into energy. The speed at which the food is converted into energy defines the quality or the type of metabolism possessed by the body. For example, a body with a slower speed of converting food into energy is said to have a low metabolism, while a body with a faster rate of energy conversion is said to have a high metabolism. Thyroid maintains metabolism under control through TH, which is created by extracting iodine from the blood and incorporating it into TH.